Day 1: Friday 19th February.
Chair: Thabo Mbeki
Platform members: Sam Shilowa, Anatoli Karpov, Kenneth Kaunda, Oliver Tambo, Cyril Ramaphosa, Riddick Bowe, Gertrude Shope, Joe Slovo and Mendi Msimang.
Address by Oliver Tambo
The first address was given by Oliver Tambo, who said that there would be a watershed election, hopefully in 1993, to being the process of transformation. A sovereign constituent assembly would be tasked with the drawing up of a constitution. There would be an interim government of national unity. Tambo spoke about the need to liberate the majority and to ensure that the minority did not imprison themselves in an armed laager. He also spoke of the need to address the requirements of the poor and to deal with reconciliation, unity and nation building. It was the task of the ANC, he said, to serve the cause of emancipating all humanity. He spoke of the “shameful” war in Yugoslavia and how the criminal campaign of ethnic cleansing showed that the struggle was not over. He said that the task will not end with the election of a democratic government in South Africa, and that we must stand together in the creation of a new South Africa. The new South Africa will demonstrate non-racialism at work. He said that we must join hands with the people of Angola to defeat the anti-democratic forces there and that, equally, we must make sure that the peace process in Mozambique is successful
Address by Kenneth Kaunda
Kenneth Kaunda spoke to remind the conference that there was the threat of 20 Somalias in South Africa, and how everything must be done to ensure a peaceful transition. He said that it was only through the leadership of the ANC that it would be possible to avoid such a catastrophe
Messages of support to the Conference
Messages of support were then read out from the following people: Riddick Bowe (World Heavyweight Boxing Champion), Admiral Rosa Coutinho (from Portugal), Anatoli Karpov (World Chess Champion), the Rt. Hon. Jack Cunningham, MP, PC (the British Labour Party), Wang Wei (People’s Republic of China), the Reverend Walker and the Organisation of African Unity.
Address by Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma spoke about “South Africa in the transition to democracy”. He said that the ANC had always had a preference for a peaceful transition to democracy, and then outlined the process which brought the negotiations to their present stage, and noted that the negotiations were to be resumed in March. He noted that agreement was needed on legislation, and also on the need for an integrated appeal. The role of the international community was therefore one of great importance as it had to ensure that South Africa did not slip back into some crisis and that the regime must feel circumscribed by world opinion.
Zuma noted that the National Executive Committee has now described the kind of government of national unity, with the emphasis on ensuring that reconstruction takes its proper course. He spoke about the struggle taking place to establish a democratic South Africa and of the march to peace, democracy and freedom. He said that the National Party would be included in a government of national unity as part of the process of involving everyone in the future of the country. He noted that there was a problem in deciding how to deal with the security forces, broadcasting etc., and that there would be no minority vetoes. Zuma said that this position enjoys the broad support of organisations involved in the negotiating process.
Zuma noted that the ANC commands massive political support but that the regime has the support of the security services. The transfer of power over the security forces is therefore a fundamental issue. He ended by saying that there is also the question of affirmative action to include women as candidates in the national and regional lists.
Address by Terror Lekota
Terror Lekota spoke about the elections campaign. He noted that the democratic election for the Constituent Assembly was about to become a reality, and people will vote as equals. The long-term vision cannot be put into operation without a victory in these elections. It is about deciding on who will write the new constitution. This document, Lekota argued, must eradicate apartheid. The ANC cannot afford to lose this election. Winning this election will bring hope.
Lekota noted that the ANC does not have the experience of this kind of campaigning. Violence and intimidation will make a free and fair election impossible. Access to the voters is an important issue. The electorate must be educated about how to vote. The ANC was unbanned in 1990 after 30 years of illegality. The National Party is fully conversant with the electoral process. ANC supporters will be voting for the first time. The National Party vote is a highly literate, privileged white vote. 63% of blacks are functionally illiterate. Most of the skills lie in the hands of white society.
The international community cannot be even-handed. Support must be tilted towards the disadvantaged majority. There is no involvement by the UN or the OAU. There is about when the ANC will become a political party. Its opponents are pressing for that. Such a transformation would narrow the base of the ANC.
Lekota said that 210,000 volunteers and activists will be needed who have been trained to educate people in the electoral process. 27,000 monitors are needed, and they will also need to be trained in the task. There are 94 sub-regional offices that will need access to transport and first aid kits. A programme is needed for containing and dealing with the violence. A campaign co-ordination team will be based at the ANC headquarters. There are 14 regions, with 6 sub-regions each. There is a need to get 10,000,000 people to the polls.
Address by Popo Molefe
Popo Molefe introduced the documentation for discussion on the elections. He explained that there would be six workshops in Hall C, on the following subjects:-
Role of International Monitors C1 Led by Aziz Pahad
Electoral Law C2 Led by Kader Asmal
Elections and Media C3 Led by Gill Marcus
Voter Education etc. C4 Led by Phoebe Potrite
Elections and Fundraising C5 Led by Shaheed Raji
Financial and Material Support C6 Led by Popo Molefe
Day 2 Saturday 20th February.
The second day began with the reading of messages of support to the Conference
Address by Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela began his speech by making jokes about his health, as there had been a lot of speculation on this subject in the media. He then paid tribute to Oliver Tambo, and to the participants in the Conference, as the representatives of all those who have stood by the people of South Africa in the struggle against apartheid over the years. He said that the people of South Africa are still only “hewers of wood and drawers of water”, and that people are beggars in their own land. He said that South Africa was living through complicated and difficult times, and that there was already an incipient counter-revolution. There was an obligation to prevent disintegration as had happened in Yugoslavia. Free and fair elections are vital. He called upon all the delegates to help make sure that there was a resounding victory so that reconstruction could begin. He said that he has a clean bill of health, that our love had sustained him for 27 years, and that our concern has overwhelmed him. He then said that he must rest to prepare for the task ahead.
Riddick Bowe then presented Nelson Mandela with a pair of boxing gloves, and a cheque for $100,000 as a donation to the election fund.
Address by Rev. Allan Boesak
Allan Boesak informed the conference that the ANC had come to a decision about sanctions. He made a brief introduction and then read out the statement from the ANC’s National Executive Committee. He informed us that once the agreed date for an election had been announced, and the transitional government has been established, most sanctions should be lifted. When the elected democratic government is in place, the arms and oil embargoes are to be lifted. The process has to be guaranteed, as far as possible, as being irreversible. Boesak informed the conference that COSATU supports the statement. COSATU wants investment to be channelled for reconstruction and development work. Anti-Apartheid organisations worldwide were asked to take up this work. It was noted that investment must not violate trade union rights, and that an investment code is needed.
A solidarity address was then delivered by Takata Doi, of the Social Democratic Party of Japan.
Address by Sydney Mufamadi
Sydney Mufamadi spoke about the obstacles to democratic transition. He said that the task is to transform South Africa into a zone for peace, democracy and development. He was convinced that a multilateral instrument is needed to deal with the violence. He identified as a problem the state-controlled media’s coverage of the violence. He said that this was a manifestation of the inherited past. He referred to the phrase “black on black violence” and said that this was because of political competition between warring factions. He made particular reference to the illegitimate structures imposed on people in the Bantustans. He noted that there are 200 Inkatha Freedom Party cadres, trained by the SADF, in the Caprivi Strip. He said that people are conniving at the violence in order to undermine the process of transition. He referred to “third force elements” and noted that the Goldstone Commission wants to investigate all armed forces. Chief Buthelezi, he said, has refused to co-operate in the investigation of the KwaZulu police. The NPC is incomplete and provisional and many issues cannot be covered by NPC structures. The legal skills of our people dealing with issues arising from the violence have been raised. He also noted that there was a problem of internal refugees.
The ANC has called for the establishment of a Transitional Executive Council which will need to deal with the problems of the violence, especially as there is the possibility of people taking the Savimbi option. It is necessary to create a climate conducive to free and fair elections. This means that there is a need for international observers in order to inhibit those who have invested in violence. It should be possible to mount campaigns against the Bantustans on violence.
He said that the following things were needed:-
Initiate and intensify media campaign on the nature of violence.
Expose parties derailing transition.
Make resources available to the Goldstone Commission.
Pressurise parties to co-operate with the Goldstone Commission.
Make expert advice available to parties involved in the peace process.
Support the ANC.
Strengthen international observers.
Maintain the arms embargo.
Address by Cheryl Carolus
Cheryl Carolus spoke about reconstruction and development. She said that the power and responsibility for reconstruction and development lies with the people. The ANC’s National Executive Committee has agreed that the most important task will be reconstruction and development, and that it informs the approach to a new constitution etc. There is a need for a government of national unity and reconstruction. The new government will need to take a strong role as a developmental state, which is part of a developmental society. The new state cannot shirk its responsibilities – legal and constitutional – which will allow a developmental society.
The new state will want material, technical and moral support from the international community. The apartheid government has prevented a developmental society, and the international community will need to help in the creation of one. The new government, with the components of civil society, will want to develop a plan and will need the help of the international community in that.
Address by Mongane Serote
Mongane Serote introduced the Commission on Arts and Culture by saying that it needed to function around the theme of redressing apartheid and supporting democracy. He said that the Commission was charged with the responsibility of interpreting ANC cultural policy. He said that the Commission was faced with the task of identifying what should be done to eradicate apartheid culture, and to build democratic culture. He noted that there were now many democratic cultural organisations. These need to be linked to and supported by the international community, and that there is a need for resources and skills. He suggested that the delegates should visit a community arts centre if going to a township. He said that the South African people make culture from very meagre resources and that they deserve to enjoy it. He noted that now there is a problem of funding the structures that have grown up. Most people running these arts centres are self-educated, and that there is a need to upgrade resources. The question is, how? Skills are needed to run arts centres effectively, and this will help to improve the lives of the communities. In this, he noted, the role of the Civics is important, mentioning COSAW in particular. He noted that these structures are part of the emerging civil society. South Africa must become a non-racial democratic country. Diversity is the wealth, foundation and character of the nation.
Serote said that there was a problem in being a multilingual society, and noted that 60% of the population is illiterate. He said that a conference is being organised under the theme Culture and Development, and that the aim is to discover what we need to target. The Conference will be held from 25th April to 1st May. The intention is to open up a national debate on cultural development, and to launch working groups around the issues raised. There is a need for information on how development is handled in each genre. There is a need for maximum access to various sources of funding, and a need for trained personnel.
The process of winning the election depends on mobilising the people and the international community. There is a need to use visual messages for an illiterate people. There is also a question about what people here can do. Serote referred to the problems of funding and training in the arts, and said that the international dimension enriches the arts in South Africa. He referred to artistic integrity and said that there was a need to collate information on what grants are available. He gave delegates the names of contacts at the Conference Office – Nonkululeko, Thiele and Jonathan – and the phone (330 7376) and fax (333 9090) numbers.
Day 3. Sunday 21st February.
The third day began with the reading out of solidarity greetings from the governments of Denmark, Malaysia, Iran, Pakistan, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire.
Address by Aziz Pahad
Aziz Pahad began by making the point that because of a feared leak to the press, the Conference had already discussed sanctions. He said that the press stories do not accord with the facts. The primary object of foreign policy was to expose the horrors of apartheid and to mobilise world opinion against it. Together, we have built an unprecedented international campaign, and are now on the brink of a new dawn, but we have not built a new South Africa as yet. The aim is to create a constitution as a social vision of what the nation should be. The aim is to provide a platform and institutions to tackle the legacy of apartheid. Sanctions have made a decisive contribution and still have a decisive role to play. The resolution is an important part of the strategy. The premature lifting of sanctions would be disastrous. Foreign capital must be aware of the disastrous long-term effect that this would have on the economy.
Entering new territory, South Africa will achieve the transition to democracy in a unipolar world. Pahad referred to multi-party democracies and powerful economic blocks dominating the world. He also referred to the emergence of ethnic conflict and the marginalisation of the Third World. He said that the basic objective of President Bush’s foreign policy was to keep the USA, the EU and Japan co-operating. The fate of South Africa is bound up inextricably with that of the rest of Africa. A democratic South Africa must become a motor for peace in the continent. South Africa will champion a Human Rights Court for Africa and will stress the importance of regional co-operation, for instance, through the SADC. South African membership of the SADC etc. would have to ensure an economic balance between the countries. It was noted that the region also has to recover from the damage inflicted by apartheid. Relations with financial institutions must protect the integrity of the country… It is the intention to reduce the armed forces so that South Africa is no longer a threat to its neighbours, and to resolve disputes by peaceful means. The Indian Ocean and the seas around South Africa will be promoted as a nuclear free zone.
There is also a need to deal with the problems of environmental survival, and this will follow the conventions adopted at the Rio de Janeiro conference. South Africa will need support in generating resources for reconstruction and development, and will need assistance in effecting the transformations necessary for the transition from apartheid. Material and financial resources are needed for:-
Ensuring that the election is won.
Developing social and economic policy.
Eliminating economic imbalance.
Promoting public awareness about the campaign on violence.
Material aid to deal with the consequences of the violence.
Apartheid South African was a haven and an inspiration for racism. Let democratic South Africa become the gravedigger of racism. South African is seeking membership of the Lomé Convention, but the nature of that membership is still to be determined. The capacity to deliver will depend upon the ability to deliver the kind of society that is required in South Africa.
This speech was followed by more solidarity messages from the government of Kenya, the French Communist Party (PCF), Harlem Youth and the government of India.
Conference Declaration and other business
This was read by Abdul Minty and was adopted unanimously. There was also a resolution on Angola and Mozambique, and it was announced that the Draft Programme of Action would be distributed and that responses were to be submitted by 1st March 1993.
It was announced that the Department of International Affairs would arrange any visits. Kenneth Kaunda then closed the conference. In his final remarks as the chair of the conference, Thabo Mbeki reminded the delegates that we had met legally and openly in an unliberated zone and it was that strength that guaranteed victory.
Meeting with the PWV Region of the ANC
Those present: Peter Brayshaw, Chris Burford, David Kenvyn, Obed Bapela, Tshalo Ledbala, Strike Ragosane, Amos Masondo and Simon Vilakazi.
This meeting was a briefing on the twinning programme, the violence, the elections and the programme of action for 1993.
Twinning: There is now a new executive and the person who has been in contact< Barbara Hogan, has retired from that role so we need to look at ways in which we can strengthen the links between the two organisations. Chris Burford gave a briefing on how the twinning link developed, and noted that aspects of twinning included the giving of political and material support. It was confirmed that the cheque from the London Anti-Apartheid Committee had arrived. The ANC representatives said that they needed more information on educational trusts, and David Kenvyn agreed to deal with this.
Programme of Action: The ANC representatives explained that this programme had just been adopted, focussing on the elections and the peace process. Phase One would last from January to 15th March and consisted of training on voter education and the image of the ANC so that the volunteers are ready for canvassing. Phase Two would be launched on 21st March, which would be the beginning of the canvassing campaign. The PWV region is divided into six sub-regions, and each area will have a rally for the launch of the campaign. People are afraid of wearing ANC colours on the streets, and so the colours will have to be re-introduced to the streets. There will be a distribution of leaflets on education, policing, health and the economy. We were asked to organise the sending of messages of support. Media work will be crucial to the campaign because of the vast number of voters within the region. Phase 3 will begin in May and the Regional Council will assess the position.
Organisation: The membership in the region is c150, 000-200,000. There is a problem with administrative skills. There are 6,000,000 voters in PWV which is the industrial heartland of the country. There is a difficulty in organising in the Pretoria sub-region because it includes part of Bophuthatswana. There is also a problem of organising in the Vaal region because of the large number of white farms. There is no office for the sub-regional committee in the East Rand. The Soweto sub-region has an office with a telephone but no other equipment. There are 101 branches in the region and one branch in the East Rand has over 100,000 members. Katlehong is also divided into sub-regions. The sub-regions are:-
Pretoria. 20 branches, but with difficulties in Bophuthatswana. It was noted that it is possible to organise in KwaNdebele.
West Rand 9 branches.
East Rand 14 branches but with problems on the farms.
Soweto 35 branches
Vaal 7 branches
Johannesburg 16 branches, but with difficulties in Bophuthatswana.
There are seven organisers and the Political Education Officer is Dumise Putini. These are the people who are responsible for political growth. There are 5 cars for the region.
There are 88 hostels in the region, 27 of which are controlled by the Inkatha Freedom Party. An
Agreement between the PWV and the Hostel Dwellers’ Association has reduced the violence. Mzimhlophe hostel is problematic and the area of Soweto around it has been devastated. Lucky Mampuro was shot dead by the police last month, and Vusi Tshabalala and Sam Ntuli in Thokoza in November 1992. PWV executive members do not have guns, but the organisers do.
Train violence: A march has been organised to oppose the violence under the auspices of SARHWU. This was followed by a train boycott. A Train Accord was agreed between the ANC/SACP/COSATU alliance on the one hand and the train company on the other. Meetings take place regularly to monitor the situation. The SAP does not have a strategy to deal with the problem. Train violence has taught the ANC PWV region that the violence has to be dealt with in specific detail. A peace desk has been established in the PWV region, staffed by 5 people to monitor the violence. They try to persuade eye-witnesses to give evidence, but many are afraid because there is no protection programme. A bulletin is produced monitoring the violence but there are now financial problems with doing this. There is a possibility of swapping AA News with Amandla, the paper of the PWV region. The PWV region wants to have a conference in June aimed at setting up a movement for peace.
Meeting with the ANC/SACP/COSATU Alliance (ANC PWV Region)
Present: Gwede Mantashe, David Kenvyn, Chris Burford and others.
Gwede Mantashe opened the meeting and outlined the agenda, as follows:-
- SAMWU report.
- The situation in Angola.
- May Day.
- National Campaign.
- Education Crisis.
Gwede Mantashe introduced Chris Burford and David Kenvyn to the meeting, and asked for an explanation of the political project of the Democratic Left. This was given.
SAMWU report: It was noted that the municipal workers are in dispute, and that there are problems with the hostels. Some of the workers have been injured and others killed. On 2nd June 1992, 100 people were killed. Representations have been made demanding the resignation of councillors and the destruction of a hostel. Negotiations took place from 9th June to 3rd July. The Council refused to consider the demolition of the hostel. They also refused to resign. The question of the security of the workers was not discussed. It was then discovered that the Council had underpaid the workers for years, and it was agreed that the Council should pay what was owed by 1st September. The Council now say that they do not have the money and that they will have to retrench. The Council has now locked the workers out and sent suspension letters on 2nd September. On the 3rd September, the administration workers were .locked out. An offer was made to allow the workers to return to work providing that they agreed to forego benefits. This was refused. It was agreed that the workers should return to work on 2nd November, with no strings attached. On that day, all the workers were suspended. The problems continue, with the Council deciding to institute disciplinaries and have set up an enquiry which SAMWU has refused to co-operate with. 14 shop stewards are sitting in at the Metropolitan Chamber. The Council’s legal advisors are sitting as chairs of the disciplinary panels. Dealing with people who are untrustworthy, SAMWU wants to seek participation and assistance from the tripartite alliance. It was recognised that this is a political as well as a labour struggle and the alliance need to push for the resignation of the Council. There is a need for help to put pressure on the TPA. Various forms of direct action are being considered, including a demonstration on 10th March. It was suggested that CAST should be involved in the planning.
The situation in Angola: Cde Jabu explained that the ANC NEC and the Central Committee of the SACP have adopted resolutions demanding the honouring of democracy in Angola, by the USA, the UN, and the Republic of South Africa etc. The people of South Africa have benefitted from the internationalist policies of the MPLA government. There is also a need for material aid, and the need to expose the role of South Africa in supplying UNITA. There are clear indications that Savimbi is in South Africa at the moment.
Cde Paul said that the matter had been discussed by the Regional Political Committee on the previous day, and that plans were being made for solidarity action. It is important to emphasise the decisive victory of the MPLA in the recent elections, and to note that Savimbi is refusing to support the democratic process.
It was suggested that something should be done at the American consulate. An Angola Solidarity Committee has been set up and there is a need to ensure that high-profile members of the alliance attend the action on Monday.
Cde Gwede suggested that a letter should be written to President Clinton concerning the situation in Angola. It was also suggested that the sections of the alliance should devolve action down through their structures to the branches. Cde Jabu said that the campaign needs a media profile and the efforts should be made to involve the SACC and other organisations. Cde Janet said that this should not be a one-off but a means of launching solidarity action. It was agreed to organise a demonstration at the US Consulate in Johannesburg and to start publicising such a demonstration the next day. Cde Charles suggested that there should be some action against De Klerk and, possibly Mangope as well, and that a series of demonstrations should be held.
NB. My notes come to an end at this point.